If you are considering using cannabis for medical purposes, you may have wondered how it might affect your urinary system. There are several studies on the effects of cannabinoids on the body. This article will explore some of them, as well as the impact of marijuana on the kidneys and ESRD (end stage renal disease).
Cannabinoids are the active ingredients of marijuana (cannabis) and can have an impact on the urinary system. They act on receptors to modify nerve-mediated functions of isolated tissues. Several studies have investigated the effects of cannabinoids on the urinary system.
There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors. These are CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptor is mainly present in central nervous system pain transmission regions. However, it is also expressed in immune cells and is associated with allograft fibrosis.
CB1 agonists have been shown to reduce neuronal activity in the bladder. They also attenuate bladder contractility. Moreover, CB1 has been associated with painful bladder syndrome and idiopathic detrusor overactivity. This suggests that cannabinoids may play a role in fibrosis and allograft dysfunction.
Cannabinoids are now being used to treat a variety of benign urological disorders. For example, a recent study showed that oral cannabinoids can alleviate symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB).
The effects of cannabinoids on the bladder are well documented in animal models. It is believed that they act by attenuating the acetylcholine-induced contractions of the bladder. Nevertheless, further research is needed to explore their role in bladder control.
In animal studies, cannabinoids have also been shown to alter urodynamic parameters. Specifically, these agents are believed to increase the micturition threshold in rats under inflamed conditions. Another promising indication is the antihyperalgesic effect of cannabinoids in bladder inflammation studies.
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS)
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an illness that is characterized by intense vomiting and nausea. The symptoms usually lessen after a few days, but can persist for months. This is a very disabling disorder that requires the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team.
Although it is relatively new, CHS is becoming more common. It can be caused by a high dose of THC, which is the psychoactive component of cannabis.
It is characterized by cyclic vomiting, which is usually accompanied by abdominal pain. A hot bath or shower will help to ease the pain and nausea.
When you start to notice symptoms, it is important to stop using cannabis. In most cases, these symptoms go away within a day or two after the marijuana is stopped. However, people who use cannabis chronically have a higher risk for developing this disorder.
CHS is diagnosed based on a patient’s history and physical exam. Your doctor may also order blood work to rule out other health conditions. Some of the tests they may order are a pregnancy test, a CT scan, or an MRI.
People who are in the prodromal phase of CHS have experienced a combination of nausea and abdominal pain, which is usually associated with their first marijuana use. They should remain hydrated and eat normally.
Patients with the hyperemetic phase of CHS are prone to dehydration, which is why they should have intravenous fluids to replace fluid lost through vomiting. Dehydration can cause complications, which is why patients may need inpatient care.
Cannabinoid excretion in the urine
When it comes to detecting marijuana use in humans, cannabinoid excretion in the urine is a critical issue. The excretion of cannabinoids in human urine has been studied by a variety of methods. However, there is still limited data available from controlled clinical studies.
The aim of this study was to examine the time course of THC elimination from urine samples. In a series of experiments, subjects were administered cannabis, and their urine samples were collected for a period of up to 30 days.
Urine specimens were analyzed for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), a glucuronide conjugate of THC. Two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to accurately quantify THCCOOH in the sample. This technique allows for a superior level of specificity and resolution.
A small group of males and females 18 to 50 years of age were recruited. They were sequestered in a secure clinical research unit to prevent drug access. These volunteers were screened for cannabinoid levels in their morning urine.
The results showed that chronic cannabis users’ urinary excretion of THC was significantly prolonged during monitored abstinence. Chronic users’ THCCOOH concentrations correlated with symptom severity. While the findings may suggest that chronic marijuana use is associated with higher THCCOOH levels, it is unclear whether this association would hold true during the terminal elimination phase.
Although cannabinoid concentrations in the urine were high at the start of the experiment, they decreased gradually during the study. Seven of the participants had measurable THC in their urine for 3, 4, 7, 7, 12, and 24 days after ceasing cannabis use.
Preclinical studies of the effects on brain structure and function
The effects of cannabis on brain structure and function have been studied in preclinical studies. Several studies have examined the effects of chronic use, as well as on adolescent users. While some findings are supportive, others are inconclusive.
Chronic use has been associated with neurophysiological changes that may contribute to emotional dysregulation and memory deficits. These include changes in cortical synaptic plasticity, reductions in D2R availability in the ventral striatum, and alterations in the GABA/glutamate balance in the PFC. In addition, exogenous cannabinoids can disrupt the maturation of GABAergic interneurons in the PFC.
Functional connectivity studies have explored differences in cognition and emotion regulation. Several fMRI studies have mapped the functional networks in cannabis users. This study found stable activation in the working memory network, while others have shown alterations in brain regions that subserve different types of memory.
Preclinical studies have also been conducted to examine the effects of cannabis on executive function and memory. Deficits have been observed in early-onset and late-onset users. Despite these findings, the lack of differences between CU and NU suggests that the effects of cannabis on memory performance are likely to be relatively limited in scope.
Memory is a complex construct that is influenced by various factors, including age, stage, content, and task. It is classified into a variety of forms, such as episodic memory, semantic memory, and declarative memory.
Several studies have examined the effects of THC on brain function, including dopamine release. Some have found that a single dose of THC can elicit striatal DA release in humans. Other studies have found no evidence for a THC-induced increase in DA release.
Marijuana and kidney function in healthy young adults
Cannabis, or marijuana, is the name given to the plant that contains the cannabinoid D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Although THC is known as one of the major psychotropic principles, it is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent. It can be administered via several routes, and attenuates some pulmonary complications.
Although cannabinoid receptors are found throughout the body, including in the kidney, they are not activated by cannabinoid in a nephrotoxic manner. However, the endocannabinoid system has been found to influence glomerular filtration rate and kidney fibrosis. Despite the evidence of beneficial effects of cannabinoids, more research is needed to assess their impact on kidney function.
While cannabis use does not seem to affect kidney function in healthy adults, it may have an effect on posttransplant outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Patients using marijuana may be delayed in being eligible for transplantation, as some transplant centers do not perform surgery on patients testing positive for the drug.
For patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, the medicinal benefits of cannabinoids are still unclear. The endocannabinoid system may have a therapeutic role in renal pain management, and could reduce the need for opioids. In animal models, cannabinoid agonists were found to have immunomodulating effects.
Cannabinoid abuse is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, depression, and alcohol abuse. It is believed that cannabis users with CKD should be closely monitored for signs of decline in renal function.
Medical cannabis for those with CKD or ESRD
Medical cannabis is an emerging treatment option for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The potential benefits of cannabis for CKD include alleviating nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and inflammation. However, there are some potential risks.
Patients with CKD and ESRD are at an increased risk of cardiovascular problems. Cannabis may lead to adverse respiratory effects. Smoked cannabis should be avoided in these populations. Other routes of administration can attenuate these risks.
In addition, long-term use of cannabinoids may have negative effects on cognitive function. It is therefore recommended that only patients with refractory conditions should use these medications. Those with CKD and ESRD are likely to benefit the most from cannabinoids.
Cannabis has also been shown to cause an increase in systolic blood pressure. However, this is not a clinically significant effect, and long-term use of cannabis does not seem to affect CKD progression.
There is an increasing demand for therapeutic alternatives in patients with CKD or ESRD. Some cannabinoids, such as CBD, have a heightened potential to treat nausea and vomiting. But more research is needed to fully understand these compounds and their potential for use in CKD and ESRD.
CKD patients have a high risk of developing chronic pain. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, including nephrolithiasis, renal osteodystrophy, and polycystic kidney disease. Cannabinoids have been shown to reduce the pain associated with these conditions.