Trellising is an excellent way to boost cannabis yields. It’s a great way to maximize light distribution and open up space, making it easier for plants to grow and flower properly.
There are two main types of trellising: horizontal and vertical. While horizontal trellises are used mostly outdoors, vertical trellises can be installed indoors.
One of the most important factors determining cannabis yield is light intensity. The amount of light emitted per unit area (PPFD) can directly influence leaf photosynthesis, inflorescence yield, and quality. The optimum light level for an indoor cannabis crop depends on the cultivar, growth stage, and production logistics, including lighting infrastructure costs, energy inputs, and space requirements.
To determine how canopy-level PPFD impacts cannabis bud and flower development, we grew C. sativa ‘WP:Med (Wappa)’ plants under a range of LI levels for their full ontological developmental stages. Each plant’s apical meristem-based average PPFD was measured at regular intervals throughout the trial by using an XR-Flame-S spectrometer that was spectrum-matched to canopy-level PPFD readings under the photosynthetically active (PAR) spectrum in Figure 1A.
As expected, canopy-level PPFDs increased with increasing LI, which led to a significant increase in canopy leaf (and inflorescence) morphology and inflorescence yield (Figure 7A). These increases in canopy morphology were especially notable at the apex of the plant, where short internodes, smaller leaves, and much larger and denser inflorescences were common.
We also observed that the harvest index (HI, the proportion of marketable aboveground biomass) increased with increasing LI. HI is important because it can improve harvest efficiency by reducing the amount of non-marketable, unharvested aboveground biomass that needs to be removed at harvest and disposed. This trial demonstrated that cannabis has the immense plasticity to rapidly acclimate its morphology and physiology, both at leaf- and whole-plant-levels, to changes in its growing lighting environment.
However, LI is only a limited metric of yield potential; it cannot be used independently of other parameters and does not accurately predict the maximum possible cannabis yield. Therefore, a wide range of LI is needed to elucidate the relationship between canopy-level PPFD and cannabis leaf and flower morphology and yield.
In addition to maximizing canopy-level PPFD, high LIs are also known to significantly improve trichome, cannabinoid, and flavonoid concentrations in cannabis buds. Moreover, UV exposure is known to increase these potency values. But most indoor cannabis growers do not receive sufficient UV exposure due to plastic greenhouse coverings blocking the sun’s natural UV radiation.
A trellis is a support system that connects multiple vines together. It can either be vertical, horizontal, or a combination of the two. It can also be divided into sections or cordons to separate the growing plant. It can be used to control plant growth, height, and flowering.
The impact of different types of trellising on cannabis yields is often debated. This is because different trellis systems provide different advantages and disadvantages for each growing stage of the plant.
One of the biggest disadvantages of a vertically-oriented trellis is that it can cause the plant to grow out of control. A horizontally-oriented trellis, on the other hand, allows the growing plant to stretch out over a large area, which can result in better absorption of light and more consistent airflow.
Another advantage of a vertically-oriented trellis system is that it allows for increased plant density and more bud sites per square foot of space. This can result in greater cannabis yields and larger flowers.
Depending on the type of system used, branches can be used to redirect light and nutrients toward the canopy or towards bud sites. In addition, removing unnecessary branches from the growing plant can help the crop to better absorb and use light for growth.
Some cannabis strains require more space for flowering than others. Adding extra branches can also be an effective way to boost the harvest potential of your grow.
When you’re growing a marijuana crop, it’s important to keep the ambient temperature at a stable level throughout the day. This is to avoid putting the plant in a stress state that can cause it to stop photosynthesis altogether or delay flowering.
In addition to temperature, humidity levels are crucial for maintaining an efficient grow. Excessive heat and humidity can lead to decreased nutrient uptake by the root system.
The most common lighting technology for indoor cannabis production is high-intensity discharge (HID) or LED lights. These technologies vary in their spectrum, distribution, PAR efficacy, and capital costs (Mills, 2012; Evergreen Economics, 2016).
When growing cannabis, cultivators often strive to maximize their bud production. This is because buds are an essential part of the plant and contain a high percentage of its total cannabinoid content. Increasing bud yield can be done through a variety of methods, including choosing the right genetics, selecting good plant nutrients, trimming and topping plants, and growing cannabis under a controlled environment.
Buds are meristematic tissue that develops from the tips of branches or stem nodes at the axil of leaves to produce new shoots and flowers. They can be divided into vegetative (produces leaves), flowering, or mixed buds depending on the function they perform.
A bud can be very useful for cannabis cultivation because it contains a high concentration of cannabinoid and terpene compounds. It is also very resilient and can survive a variety of weather conditions.
While bud formation occurs at different times during the growing season, most buds form in summer or fall and are generally small, erect, and with a protective covering. They are tolerant to cold temperatures and will remain dormant until warm weather forces them to bloom.
During the flowering stage, growers will use trellising to maximize flower growth and bud formation. Trellising provides space and direction for the buds to flourish and protects them from bud rot and mold.
The type of trellising used affects the quality of the bud and can also have an impact on yields. In most cases, trellising allows growers to utilize every square inch of the canopy and maximize light penetration, leading to higher yields.
There are several types of trellising used in commercial cannabis grow operations, but the most common is vertical trellising. This is a system that delivers vertical supports for the branches and holds the weight of heavy crops.
Another popular method of trellising is horizontal trellising, or ScrOG, which extends parallel to the ground. This method allows growers to maximize their yields as it allows them to create hundreds of plants tiered along outer walls.
Regardless of the type of trellising used, the goal of many cultivators is to increase their bud yields. It is a highly coveted goal that will require many growers to carefully select and top their plants, research the proper nutrients, and follow a variety of other cultivation techniques.
A cannabis plant’s canopy is the layer of leaves, branches, and tendrils that cover a plant. It is an important part of a plant’s ecosystem, providing shelter and protection from extreme weather conditions. It is also a source of food and water for plants as well as animals.
The canopy of a cannabis plant can grow to as high as four metres (13 feet) in some strains. This growth is due to the formation of female buds that produce tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the psychoactive compound responsible for its effects.
Cannabis grows in three different stages: vegetative, flowering and fruiting. The flowering stage lasts 6 to 12 weeks for pure indica strains while sativa strains have an intermediate flowering time.
In the vegetative stage, a cannabis plant needs a lot of light and nutrients. This is the reason why this stage is usually cultivated indoors in a grow room.
During this phase the plant starts to develop the buds that will eventually be harvested. It will also begin to expand the root system downward in search of more food and water.
Once the plant reaches the flowering phase, it produces small clusters of flowers known as inflorescences. These inflorescences are produced by both male and female plants, and they contain the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and other secondary metabolites such as terpenes.
These terpenes, however, do not have the same psychoactive properties as THC. They have a calming and relaxing effect that can help users sleep, relax, and reduce stress.
Many of these terpenes can also have a medicinal effect. They are able to stimulate the immune system and relieve pain, nausea, headaches and anxiety.
A plant that is in the flowering phase will often emit a distinctive smell during this time. This is an issue for some people and can be a challenge for growers in certain places, particularly where odor control is not legal.
The most common way to eliminate odor is to filter the air before it is expelled from the grow-room. A carbon filter or an ozone generator are commonly used by growers to do this.